An ever increasing number of PDF files about marine mammals in captivity are available on The Mid-Cap Chronicles for viewing or download. Here is a list of some of the current selections being stored at the blog. I’ll list and link to the remainder later this week. And I have lots more to add to the collection. Enjoy.
Marine Mammal Water Quality: Porceedings of a Symposium, USDA APHIS, 1998
Bellazzi, Gabriela Updated Report on the Killer whale Kshamenk, Wild Earth Foundation 2013
Gaydos & Bahan A Review of the Vancouver Aquarium’s current operations pertaining to cetaceans with comparison to other aquariums, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine – Orcas Island Office, 2014
Brewer, Janesse Captive Cetaceans Roundtable FINAL Meeting Summary, 23.4 Degrees, 2014
Reinhold, Robert At Sea World, Stress Tests Whale and Man, New York Times 1988
Andrews, Davis & Parham Corporate response and facilitation of the rehabilitation of a California gray whale calf, Aquatic Mammals 2001
Complete Global Captive Marine Mammal Index (MMI), NOAA Fisheries 2013
Georgia Aquarium Inc. v. Penny Pritzker, in her Official Capacity as Secretary of Commerce, National Atmospheric Administration, and National Marine Fisheries Service, Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief, United States District Court, Northern District of Georgia, Atlanta Division 2013
Lien, Jon A review of live-capture and captivity of marine mammals in Canada The Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 1999<
Klinowska, Margaret Dolphins, Porpoises and Whales of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 1991
Barbis & Korstad United States Design Patent D604,788 S: Killer Whale Life Vest, USPTO 2009
Animal Legal Defense Fund, et al v. United States Department of Agriculture, et al and Marine Exhibition Corporation, d/b/a Miami Seaquarium Order Granting Defendants’ Motion to Dismiss or In the Alternative for Summary Judgment, United States District Court, Southern District of Florida 2014
Of the three men who influenced SeaWorld the most – George Millay, Bill Jovanovich, August Busch III – Millay was the consummate showman and entertainer. The park that he engineered in the 1960’s and 1970’s was in many ways different than than one it became under Jovanovich and Busch, but his ideas can still be seen throughout the SeaWorld chain today.
A meteorologist by training, Millay co-founded Specialty Restaurant Group in 1958. He maintained a minority share in the company until the late 60’s. Specialty Restaurant was famous for its tiki-themed restaurants and lounges, but it was its first location, The Reef in Long Beach, CA, that would lead to Sea World.
In the early 60’s, when Millay wanted to add a lounge with an underwater show element, possibly with an underwater window right onto Long Beach Harbor, he brought in his old fraternity brother from UCLA, Ken Norris, to consult. In 1953, Norris had been hired as the founding curator of Marineland of the Pacific near Los Angeles. Six years later, he earned a Ph.D. from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. He would go on to be a leading force in marine mammalogy, based at the University of California, Santa Cruz. In fact, it was because of his presence at that campus, that future cetacean captivity opponent Naomi Rose, would chose Santa Cruz for her school.
Millay and Norris determined that the new underwater tank, whether artificial or a window to the harbor, would be impractical. Norris suggested a new bigger endeavor that would combine the South Pacific theming of the restaurant with the animal collection of Marineland. The two of them brought in another fraternity brother, Dave DeMott, who acted as secretary-treasurer of the new venture, and their old fraternity advisor Milton Shedd, an investment banker, who would help the company raise funds and would serve as its first Board Chairman. Millay would be the first President.
Two questions quickly arose – what to name the new oceanarium and where to place it. There was already a “Marineland” in Southern California. They opted to go with something bigger than a land – a “Sea World.” They also needed a location – prime real estate with a local population with disposable income. San Diego was just completing a 30-year transformation of marshland into a recreational park – Mission Bay – and resort hotels were starting to appear on its shores. The City of San Diego, which owned the park, had been submitted a joint plan by the Scripps Institution and the San Diego Zoo for a marine education and conservation park on the Bay’s shores. The Sea World owners would have to present a better plan, showcasing the kind of revenue they could bring in from operations. They estimated one million visitors would visit the park in the first year. They won the rights.
When the park opened in 1964, it featured an underwater theater with mermaids (and various marine mammals throughout the years), an aquarium, sea lions, a dolphin/stunt show that would eventually include the chimpanzee owned by the park’s first veterinarian riding dolphins around the lagoon theater, Hawaiian Punch Village – the best dining in the park with a tiki theme, pilot whales, performing penguins, and a Japanese village with pearl diving.
The Japanese village was a given as San Diego was a huge Navy/Marine Corps town and most of the servicemen had spent time in Japan. This allowed them the opportunity to purchase a pearl for their loved ones, pretending the two of them were overseas together.
But in the end, it wasn’t enough. The total admission, depending on source, was between 200,000 and 425,000 that first year – far below the one million they had anticipated. Something had to be done to increase attendance and the solution for year two included rollerskating penguins and an animal not even Marineland wanted.